The Viking Runes. The eldest runestones, inscribed with Norse runes, date from the century. These were the Elder Futhark runes. However, the most of the runestones were created during the late Viking Age and thus inscribed with theYounger Futhark runes.
This is a chart of the Runes and their meanings. I keep a copy of this in my BOS for reference occasionally. Between knowing the Tarot, then the Runes, a witch's brain does tend to get overloaded and need a cheat sheet.
Futhark, or runic alphabet, goes around Valknut. The runic alphabet is a collection of magical symbols. The runes have names, phonetic and magical meanings. The rings sides feature stylized dragons in a knot pattern.