19 November 636 CE, 150 miles south of present-day Baghdad, the Sassanid Persians were decisively defeated on the fourth day of the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah by the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate during the Arab conquest of Mesopotamia.
Battle of Phoenicus, Finike or Battle of Masts was a crucial naval battle fought between muslim Rashidun caliphate and Byzantine empire in 655. Significant damage on both sides later thrown shadow on byzantine navy and military defences, slowly leading to emperor´s power decay in next centuries.
Minted and circulated during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammed and the Rashidun Caliphate. AH 1-30 / AD 622-651 Arab-Byzantine half follis imitation of Justinian I. During the lifetime of the Founder of Islam the Prophet Muhammed and the first Islamic Caliphate, the Orthodox Rashidun Caliphate, the currency in circulation were copied from the reigning powers of the time which were the Byzantine in the west as well as Persian Sassanian Empire in the East.
On this day in history, 01/27/18. In 661, the Rashidun Caliphate, then the largest empire in history, ends with the death of Ali. The Rashidun Caliphate is succeeded by the Umayyad Caliphate. Now you know. Historical fact, onthisday.com; map of the Caliphate territory, Wikipedia