Statistics Formula sheet-- "Claims of fact assert that a condition has existed, exists,or will exists and that their support consists of factual information" (Birk This type of claims sometimes are backed by things like statistics, etc.
A statistical model consists of some assumptions that are observed after insights are produced from big data. The insights are then used to form a model so that you can categorize them according to their diversity. This infographic describes exactly which
Understanding reliability and validity. Tricky topics - validity trickier than reliability. At it’s core I believe reliability is about getting the same results given the same conditions and validity is about measuring what you intend to measure.