Germany. German architect Hermann Muthesius (1861-1927) spent time in England as a cultural attaché and studied the work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Ebenezer Howard, and others. He brought these ideas to Germany, developing the Garden City of Hellerau. He later was a founding member of the Deutscher Werkbund, which built the Weissenhof Estate, a seminal example of the International Style.
Hermann Muthesius is notable for being one of the few people in history to have done something useful with a philosophy degree. He grabbed a degree in architecture, then spun both disciplines with his art history training and came up with some pretty mind-rocking results.
One of his first designs is the most famous: a simple globe of opaline glass and a shaft made of nickel-plated steel – the lamp by Wilhelm Wagenfeld is a true design icon. Bauhaus and design lovers can still buy one today as a re-edition from Tecnolumen.